What Is Business Valuation?
Quite simply, business valuation is a process and a set of procedures used to determine what a business is worth. While this sounds easy enough, getting your business valuation done right takes preparation and thought.
Business valuation results depend on your assumptions
For one thing, there is no one way to establish what a business is worth. That’s because business value means different things to different people.
A business owner may believe that the business connection to the community it serves is worth a lot. An investor may think that the business value is entirely defined by its historic income.
In addition, economic conditions affect what people believe a business is worth. For instance, when jobs are scarce, more business buyers enter the market and increased competition results in higher business selling prices.
The circumstances of a business sale also affect the business value. There is a big difference between a business that is shown as part of a well-planned marketing effort to attract many interested buyers and a quick sale of business assets at an auction.
Expected selling price and business value
Hence, business value is really an expected price the business would sell for. The real price may vary quite a bit depending on who determines the business value. Compare a buyer who wants the business now because it fits important lifestyle goals to a buyer that purchases an income stream at the lowest price possible.
The selling price also depends on how the business sale is handled. Contrast a well-conducted business marketing campaign and a “fire sale”.
Three business valuation approaches
That said, there are three fundamental ways to measure what a business is worth:
- Asset Approach
- Market Approach
- Income Approach
The asset approach views the business as a set of assets and liabilities that are used as building blocks to construct the picture of business value. The asset approach is based on the so-called economic principle of substitution which addresses this question:
What will it cost to create another business like this one that will produce the same economic benefits for its owners?
Since every operating business has assets and liabilities, a natural way to address this question is to determine the value of these assets and liabilities. The difference is the business value.
Sounds simple enough, but the challenge is in the details: figuring out what assets and liabilities to include in the valuation, choosing a standard of measuring their value, and then actually determining what each asset and liability is worth.
For example, many business balance sheets may not include the most important business assets such as internally developed products and proprietary ways of doing business. If the business owner did not pay for them, they don’t get recorded on the “cost-basis” balance sheet!
But the real value of such assets may be far greater than all the “recorded” assets combined. Imagine a business without its special products or services that make it unique and bring customers in the door!
The market approach, as the name implies, relies on signs from the real market place to determine what a business is worth. Here, the so-called economic principle of competition applies:
What are other businesses worth that are similar to my business?
No business operates in a vacuum. If what you do is really great then chances are there are others doing the same or similar things. If you are looking to buy a business, you decide what type of business you are interested in and then look around to see what the “going rate” is for businesses of this type.
If you are planning to sell your business, you will check the market to see what similar businesses sell for.
It is intuitive to think that the “market” will settle to some idea of business price equilibrium – something that the buyers will be willing to pay and the sellers willing to accept. That’s what is known as the fair market value:
The business price that a willing buyer will pay, and a willing seller will accept for the business. Both parties are assumed to act in full knowledge of all the relevant facts, and neither being under compulsion to conclude the sale.
So the market approach to valuing a business is a great way to determine its fair market value – a monetary value likely to be exchanged in an arms-length transaction, when the buyer and seller act in their best interest. Market data is great if you need to support your offer or asking price – after all, if the “going rate” is this much, why would you offer more or accept less?
The income approach takes a look at the core reason for running a business – making money. Here the so-called economic principle of expectation applies:
If I invest time, money and effort into business ownership, what economic benefits and when will it provide me?
Notice the future expectation of economic benefit in the above sentence. Since the money is not in the bank yet, there is some measure of risk – of not receiving all or part of it when you expect it. So, in addition to figuring out what kind of money the business is likely to bring, the income valuation approach also factors in the risk.